Sept 11th and Mormonism!
by Rocky Hulse
Why is this
event so important in relation to the Mormon Church? It is difficult to understand how 60 Mormon
men, who believed they were doing God's will, could lure 120 men, women and
children, out into the open under a white truce flag and then turn and brutally
murder them. A study of the Mountain
Meadows Massacre takes one on a walk through the morass of blasphemous Mormon
theologies that would steer 60 men to commit the most despicable crime in
tragic day in 1857, 120 unarmed non-Mormon, men, women and children were
brutally murdered in cold blood by Mormons and Indians in
Utah. This ghastly event is
known in American history as the "Mountain Meadows Massacre." This brutal massacre of Americans by
Americans is only surpassed in the annals of American history by the Oklahoma
City Bombing, where 168 Americans lost their lives. The Oklahoma City Bombing was planned and
conducted by two men. Mountain Meadows was planned and executed by Mormon
Church leadership and at least 60 Mormon men and an unknown number of Indian
How It Began.
In April of 1857 a wealthy wagon train, reported to have as many as 1,000 head of cattle, left Caravan Spring, Arkansas, known as the Baker-Fancher Train. Following the Cherokee Trail, they arrived in Salt Lake City on August 3rd, and were met with a very chilly reception.
Two important events happened in Salt Lake City just prior to their arrival: (1) News had come that a popular Mormon Apostle, Parley P. Pratt, had been murdered "as he attempted to escape from one Hector McLean, the angry husband of a woman he had taken as his tenth wife. But to overheated emotions in Utah, the apostle was killed for his religious beliefs. Like Joseph and Hyrum Smith, he was a martyr whose blood cried for vengeance."1 The wagon train members only crime was having come from the state of Arkansas, yet totally untrue rumors circulated among the Mormons that members of the train had been involved in Apostle Pratt's murder as well as having been in the mob which killed Joseph and Hyrum Smith. (2) Utah was in a state of rebellion. Having left Illinois to get away from the laws of the United States , when the Mormons arrived in Utah it was a Mexican territory. With the United States the victor in the War with Mexico , Utah become a Territory of the United States ; the Mormons were once again under U.S. law. Brigham Young ran Utah as a theocratic state and refused to be governed under U.S. law. Then President James Buchanan, dispatched Colonel Johnson of the Second U.S. Calvary to bring Utah back into control. This news arrived in Salt Lake City, just one week prior to the train's arrival.
Prepare the people for war!
The day the train arrived in Salt Lake City, Brigham Young dispatched Mormon Apostle, George A. Smith, to prepare the people for war. "Traveling fast, Smith averaged nearly forty miles a day over the 250 miles or so from the territorial capital to Iron County. Even so, he found time at each settlement along the southern trail to California to instruct local leaders to sell no grain or other supplies to "gentile" emigrants, to harvest and hide up their wheat early, and to drill and outfit their military forces for active operations to repel the approaching U.S. Army expedition. Wherever he went, the apostle fanned the militant spirit of the reformation. According to legend, Smith told Parowan settlers that bones make a good fertilizer for fruit trees. As for American soldiers coming to Utah, he went on, he could "think of nothing better that they could do than to feed a fruit tree in Zion." He later said, "in spite of all I could do, I found myself preaching a military discourse." At Harmony, a few miles south of Cedar City, Rachel Lee said Smith "delivered a discourse on the spirit that actuated the United States toward this people—full of hostility and virulence." 2
On August the 5th the Baker-Fancher train headed south continuing its trek to California. The train met much hostility, as no one would sell provisions to them, and the Mormons would not allow them to stop and graze their cattle along the way where they could prevent it. They arrived at Mountain Meadows on September 5th and encamped, intending to allow their cattle to graze on the luscious grass of the meadow.
"George A. Smith arrived in Great Salt Lake City at 4:00 P.M. on August 31, "having traveled about seven hundred miles of rough roads and preached in all the Settlements of Iron, Washington, and Beaver Counties." The next day Jacob Hamblin [Indian Agent] brought ten or twelve Indians "to See Brigham the great Morman chief."...As the Fancher train made camp some seventy miles north of Mountain Meadows on the evening of September 1, 1857, Young met for about an hour with the southern chiefs to implement his plan to stop overland emigration on the southern road...Describing his meeting with the Paiutes in his journal, Young claimed he could "hardly restrain them from exterminating the 'Americans.'" In truth, that Tuesday night Young encouraged the Indians to seize the stock of the wagon trains on the southern route. Jaunita Brooks [author, The Mountain Meadows Massacre, 1950] recognized the importance of this crucial meeting but could only speculate on its purpose. Historians have long assumed no detailed eyewitness account of the interview existed, but the diary of Young's brother-in-law and interpreter, Dimick Huntington, has survived in the LDS Archives since 1859. Describing the September 1 parlay, Huntington wrote: "I gave them all the cattle that had gone to Cal the south rout it made them open their eyes they sayed that you told us not to steal so I have but now they have come to fight us & you for when they kill us they kill you they sayd the[y] was afraid to fight the Americans & so would raise [allies] and we fight" The language of Huntington's critical journal entry is archaic, but its meaning is clear. Even a devout Mormon historian has identified the "I" in this entry as Brigham Young."3
Direct Leadership Involvement!
The above quote from 'Blood of the Prophets', just published in August 2002, the first book on this tragedy since Mormon author Juanita Brooks' book in 1950, provides the 'smoking gun' diary entry of Dimick Huntington, which directly ties Brigham Young to this event. This link has been assumed since the incident, but no direct tie has been uncovered until now.
On Sunday the 6th of September, the day before the first attack, a council was held in Parowan to discus the fate of the wagon train. The Mormon historian B. H. Roberts admits that such a meeting was held: "It was customary for the local leading men at Cedar and from the smaller settlements in its vicinity to gather in a council meeting after the close of the regular Sunday services of the church, to consider the questions of local community interest. At such a meeting on the 6th of September the question concerning the conduct of, and what ought to be done with, the Arkansas emigrants was brought up and debated. Some in the council were were in favor of destroying them, and others were not."4
It is plain to see by the diary entry of Dimick Huntington that Brigham Young had declared the emigrants enemies and Apostle Smith had met with local church leaders on his trip to Southern Utah defining Brigham's position and intentions. On the morning of September 7th, under direction of Mormon Bishop, John D. Lee, as ordered by Mormon Stake President, Isaac C. Haight, the Indians surprise attacked the wagon train killing and wounding many. The emigrants quickly returned fire, killing several Indians, and fortified the train for battle. The Indians not expecting such resistance quickly lost their taste for this battle and a state of siege set in which lasted four days until September 11th.
News of the failed Indian attempt to wipe out the train reached the Mormon authorities in Iron County. They met, decided, and dispatched militia to the Meadows to deal with the emigrants. The decision delivered by John M. Higbee, the 1st Counselor to Stake President Haight and a Major in the Iron County Militia, was to have John D. Lee, a Mormon Bishop, lure the emigrants under a white truce flag to surrender and lay down their arms for safe passage to Cedar City. Once the emigrants were lured out on the meadow away from the wagons and their arms, they were to be massacred leaving "none who could tell the tale" alive.
On the morning of September 11, 1857, John D. Lee and William Bateman approached the train with a white truce flag and laid out the diabolical offer. The emigrants agreed believing the militia awaiting escort duties on the meadow were their deliverers. The women and children eight years old and older were led out in single file first, followed by the men. Each man had an armed militia member at his side. The wounded and children seven years of age and under were loaded into two separate wagons. Upon the command of Major Higbee "Do your duty," the Mormon militia turned and killed the men and then the Indians having laid in wait in ambush, joined by Mormons disguised as Indians brutally murdered the women and children. The militia on the wagons turned and at point blank range executed the wounded. In just a matter of minutes the horrific deed was done. The seventeen children under the age of eight that were spared were then distributed to various Mormon homes.
How Could This Happen?
A study of Mormon theology uncovers the answer to the above question. Unfortunately for these emigrants they were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The news of the Murder of Mormon Apostle Parley P. Pratt, and the subsequent false claim that these emigrants were accomplices to that death as well as the death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, placed them under the 'Law of Vengeance': "You and each of you do solemnly promise and vow that you will pray, and never cease to pray, and never cease to importune high heaven to avenge the blood of the prophets on this nation, and that you will teach this to your children and your children's children unto the third and fourth generation." "All bow your heads and say yes."5 This oath was sworn by every Mormon who participated in the Temple Ceremony until it was finally removed February 15, 1927.
Not only were these emigrants worthy of death under the 'Law of Vengeance,' but also under the Doctrine of 'Blood Atonement.' This Mormon doctrine states that there are certain sins that a person can commit that are outside the cleansing blood of Jesus Christ and can only be atoned for by shedding one's own blood. The following list details Mormon crimes requiring the blood of the person committing them to cleanse them from these sins:
(1) Murder (2) Adultery and Immorality (3) Stealing (4) Using the name of the Lord in vain (5) For not receiving the gospel (6) For marriage to an African (7) For covenant breaking (8) For apostasy (9) For lying (10) For counterfeiting (11) For condemning Joseph Smith or consenting to his death6
The Mormon men, who carried out this terrible deed, believed they were following the orders of the Mormon Priesthood as well as their Military Superiors. Within the theology of Mormonism, the Mormon Priesthood has absolute authority. The following quotes emphasize that point:
Brigham Young said "...it is reported that I have said that whoever the President appoints, I am still the Governor. I repeat it, all hell cannot remove me. (cries of 'amen') I am still your Governor. (cries of 'glory to God.') I will still rule this people until God himself permits another to take my place. I wish I could say as much for the other officers of the government. The greater part of them are a gambling, drinking, whoring set....Do you think I'll obey or respect them? No! I'll say as I did the other day, when the flag was hauled down from before the Military Quarters—'Let them take down the American Flag; we can do without it.' (great applause, stamping of feet and yells.)"7
Joseph Smith said the following: "God made Aaron to be the mouthpiece of the children of Israel , and he will make me to be God to you in his stead, and the elders to be mouth for me; and if you don't like it you must lump it." 8
Brigham Young also said: "The first principle of our cause and work is to understand that there is a prophet in the church, and that he is at the head of the Church of Christ on earth. Who called Joseph Smith to be a prophet? Did the people or God? God, and not the people, called him. Had the people gathered together and appointed one of their number to be a prophet, he would be accountable to the people, but, inasmuch as he was called of God, and not by the people, he is accountable to God only...and not to any man on earth. The twelve apostles are accountable to the prophet and not to the church for the course they pursue, and we have learned to go and do as the prophet tells us."9
The Official Mormon magazine "Improvement Era" provides the following quote: "Any Latter-day Saint who denounces or opposes, whether actively or otherwise, any plan or doctrine advocated by the 'prophets, seers, and revelators' of the Church is cultivating the spirit of apostasy.... Lucifer...wins a great victory when he can get members of the Church to speak against their leaders and to 'do their own thinking.' ...When our leaders speak, the thinking has been done. When they propose a plan - it is God's plan. When they point the way, there is no other which is safe. When they give direction, it should mark the end of controversy."10
Ezra Taft Benson, the thirteenth Mormon prophet, provided the following points in a devotional speech given at BYU entitled "Fourteen Fundamentals in Following the Prophets":
(1) The Prophet is the only man who speaks for the Lord in everything. (2) The living prophet is more vital to us than the standard works (scripture). (3) The living prophet is more important to us than a dead prophet. (4) The prophet will never lead the Church astray. (5) The prophet is not required to have any particular earthly training or credentials to speak on any subject or act on any matter at any time. (6) The prophet does not have to say "Thus Saith the Lord," to give us scripture. (7) The prophet tells us what we need to know, not always what we want to know. (8) The prophet is not limited by men's reasoning. (9) The prophet can receive revelation on any matter, temporal or spiritual. (10) The prophet may be involved in civic matters. (11) The two groups who have the greatest difficulty in following the prophet are the proud who are learned and the proud who are rich. (12) The prophet will not necessarily be popular with the world or the worldly. (13) The prophet and his counselors make up the First Presidency—the highest quorum in the Church. (14) The prophet and the presidency—the living prophet and the First Presidency—follow them and be blessed—reject them and suffer.11 Heber C. Kimball, 1st Counselor to Brigham Young, delivered the following in a sermon: "...learn to do as you are told.... if you are told by your leader to do a thing, do it, none of your business whether it is right or wrong."12
Oh my goodness folks, do you see the absolute control exuded in the above quotes? Joseph Smith said he was God to the people. Brigham Young said Joseph and all subsequent prophets were/are called of God and therefore answers only to God and Mormons are to "go and do as the prophet tells us." The Church magazine, Improvement Era says that Lucifer wins a great victory when Mormons think for themselves, and when Mormon leaders speak "the thinking has been done." The 'Fourteen Fundamentals In Following The Prophet,' laid out by the 13th Mormon prophet, Ezra Taft Benson, spells out a framework for complete control. Benson says the current prophet can contradict any previous prophet and can even contradict scripture. That folks, is total, utter, blind obedience, and should scare the daylights out of any reasoning person. Then to top it all off, the statement "learn to do as you are told...none of your business whether it is right or wrong," by Heber C. Kimball, when coupled with the above listed absolute control statements of the Mormon Priesthood, is frightening. Now, put this in the framework that the Mormon Militia issuing the orders on that fateful day were also the senior Mormon Priesthood holders in Southern Utah; therefore, they were speaking for the prophet as they had been given direction by the Mormon Apostle George A. Smith who had just left Southern Utah on his "prepare for war" trip. Here you have the recipe for the massacre that followed.
Denial. Brigham knew! The Mormon Church then, and today, denies any involvement with the massacre. In official Mormon writings the Mormons involved are dismissed as "other white men" and are not identified as Senior Mormon Leadership. When pressed the Mormon Church admits Mormons were involved but describes them as 'fanatics of the worst stamp.' Well here is a short laundry list of the 'fanatics of the worst stamp': 1 Stake President and his 1st Counselor, 4 Stake High Councilmen, 4 Bishops and one 1st Counselor, 2 City Councilmen, and 1 Attorney at Law. Folks this tally is almost 25% of the perpetrators and could be classified as anything but 'fanatics of the worst stamp'; not to escape attention here is the fact that these men were not only the senior leadership of the Church in Southern Utah, but also, the senior Militia Officers. To insinuate that the Church had no involvement is to believe Ford does not build F-150 pickups. The Church also tries to allude that Brigham Young never knew about the details of the massacre until years later. Ridiculous! Mormon Bishop, John D. Lee, stated in his court trial, that he gave Brigham Young a full report immediately after the event. This is collaborated by Mormon Apostle Wilford Woodruff's Diary entry for Sept 29th, 1857: "John D. Lee also arrived from Harmony with an express and an awful tale of Blood."13 Jacob Hamblin, the Indian Agent who brought the Indian Chiefs to meet with Brigham on September 1, 1857, and on whose land Mountain Meadows lay, also told Brigham: "Jacob Hamblin, a reputable witness, testified at the second Lee trial that 'soon after it [the massacre] happened, 'he reported to Brigham Young and George A. Smith what Lee had told him of the affair; of the part that white men had taken in it; and that in greater detail than he had given it, or was able to give in his testimony in court,'...Brigham Young said to him that 'as soon as we can get a court of justice we will ferret this thing out, but till then, don't say anything about it.'14 Almost two years after the tragedy, when the Federal Government heard of the massacre, Army Brevet Major Carleton, of the First Dragoons, was ordered to conduct an investigation. He was horrified at what he and his men found. Upon arrival at the Meadows, the bones were scattered across the plain, with evidence of coyote and wolf gnawing. The Mormons had drug the bodies into a ravine and threw some bush over them, leaving them easily accessible to wild animals. Major Carleton directed, the bones be gathered, buried, and a twelve-foot high conical shaped rock cairn be erected with a twelve foot cross placed atop it facing Salt Lake City. The cedar cross had the words etched upon it "Vengeance is mine. I will repay saith the Lord." Joseph Fielding Smith, 10th Mormon prophet, in 1950 wrote "Lee also reported in person, laying the blame solely to the Indians. Governor Young wept bitterly and was horrified at the recital of the tale."15 Quite a different story is related by the diaries of the era. Shortly after the Army had left the Meadows, Brigham Young visited the site and upon reading the inscription on the cross he reacted with an attitude quite different than that purported by Joseph Fielding Smith: "It should be vengeance is mine and I have taken a little." One of Young's escorts lassoed the cross with a rope, turned his horse, and pulled it down. Brigham Young "didn't say a word," recalled Dudley Leavitt. "He didn't give an order. He just lifted his right arm to the square, and in five minutes there wasn't one stone left upon another. He didn't have to tell us what needed to be done. We understood."16 Part of Major Carleton's investigation revealed that the spoils (livestock, wagons, rifles, clothing and household goods) were delivered to the Church's Tithing Office and sold, with the Church retaining the money: "...a party of armed men under the command of a man named John D. Lee, who was then a Bishop in the Church, but who has since (as Brigham Young) says) been deposed, left the settlements of Beaver City (north of Parowan), Parowan City, and Cedar City on what was called "a secret expedition," and after an absence of a few days returned, bringing back strange wagons, cattle, horses, mules, and other household property. There is legal proof that this property was sold at the Official Tithing Office of the Church....17 The Seventeen Children. In the same document just cited, Major Carleton, upon learning that when the 17 children under the age of seven were recovered by Federal Indian Superintendent, Jacob Forney, a year and a half after the massacre, and that the Mormons had billed the Federal Government for their room and board, lying that they had to purchase the children from the Indians, made the following statement: "Has there ever been an act which at all equaled this in devilish hardihood, in more than devilish effrontery? Never, but one: and even then the price was but "30 pieces of silver.'" The Mormons reported that they had to purchase the children from the Indians; however, when the children were recovered and asked about this, they stated that they had never been in the custody of the Indians. These spared children bring up another bizarre piece of the Mormon theology puzzle. Why were these children "seven years of age and under" spared? The answer was to ensure none of the Temple Mormons involved "shed innocent blood." In Mormon theology, once a person has gone through the Mormon Temple Ceremony and received their "endowments," they may commit any sin, except the "shedding of innocent blood," and will still become a God in the next life: "Verily, verily, I say unto you, if a man marry a wife according to my word, and they are sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise, according to mine appointment, and he or she shall commit any sin or transgression of the new and everlasting covenant whatever, and all manner of blasphemies, and if they commit no murder wherein they shed innocent blood, yet they shall come forth in the first resurrection, and enter into their exaltation;..."18 The following quotes define the Mormon definition of "innocence": (1) In the gospel sense, innocence is the state of purity and freedom from sin which men must possess to gain salvation in the kingdom of God. ( Alma 11:37.) Little children live in a state of perfect innocence and consequently are saved without works on their part.19 (2) Attainment of the age and state of accountability is a gradual process. Thus the Lord says "power is not given unto Satan to tempt little children, until they begin to become accountable before me." (D. & C. 29:47.) Children who develop normally become accountable "when eight years old" (D. & C. 68:27)...20 Mormon Apostle Wilford Woodruff's Diary entry for Sept 29th, 1857 tells of John D. Lee's initial report of the incident to Brigham Young: "John D. Lee also arrived from Harmony with an express and an awful tale of Blood. A company of California emigrants, of about 150 men, women and children, many of them belonging to the mob in Missouri and Illinois, had been massacred....Brother Lee said that he did not think there was a drop of innocent blood in their camp."21 This statement has no bearing to anyone involved in this crime except Temple Mormons. If Temple Mormons were not involved in this crime, the theology of innocent blood would never have been mentioned. When Mormon History is put under a microscope, it unravels quickly. Mormon writers are Mormonism's own worst enemy. Murderers Rewarded! Not only did Brigham Young know the details of this cold blooded murder, he rewarded the two major players: "In his private sealing room, Brigham Young married Emma Batchelor to John D. Lee on January 7, 1858. To celebrate, Lee provided a treat of cherry brandy, sugar, and liquors, while Mrs. Ezra Taft Benson "made the bride a cake & a good dinner." Lee's guests, including Isaac Haight, ate "drank & made merry & had a firstrate good time." The prophet married Isaac Haight to Elizabeth Summers on January 24, the day before Lee, Haight and their new wives left Salt Lake. Lee gave Haight a brace of Colt Revolvers, perhaps as a wedding gift. Lee had taken the initiative in contracting his marriage to Emma, but the timing of the two weddings led to charges that the new brides were the men's reward for their work at Mountain Meadows."22 Brigham Lied! Six years after the fact, Brigham Young had no qualms of standing in the pulpit and lying about the massacre: "...A company of emigrants were traveling on the route to California. Nearly all of that company were destroyed by Indians. That unfortunate affair has been laid to the charge of the whites. A certain judge that was then in the territory wanted the whole army to accompany him to Iron County to try the whites for the murder of that company of emigrants.... but to this day they have not touched the matter, for fear the Mormons would be acquitted from the charge of having any hand in it, and our enemies would thus be deprived of a favorite topic to talk about, when urging hostility against us. 'The Mountain Meadows Massacre! Only think of the Mountain Meadows Massacre!!' Is their cry from one end of the land to the other."23 When giving this sermon Brigham Young knew full well that the Indians did not act alone; however, such is the norm in Mormon history. Trial and Execution The uproar across the Nation would not allow this crime to go unpunished, no matter how much Brigham Young and the rest of the Church hierarchy tried to obstruct justice. It was decided to blame the entire event on John D. Lee and even though there were at least 60 Mormon men involved he was excommunicated in 1870: "John D. Lee was excommunicated from the Church with the injunction from President Young that under no circumstances should he ever be admitted as a member again."24 John D. Lee was eventually arrested, brought to trial, and acquitted in May 1876. The jury was made up of 8 Mormons and 4 Gentiles (non-Mormons) and, you guessed it, the vote for conviction was exactly 8 against, and 4 to convict, perfectly splitting between Mormons and Gentiles. The outrage across the country was too much for the Mormon Church to bear. A second trial was convened and the jury this time, was all Mormons; however, Brigham had given the nod to subdue the outrage of the first trial and the verdict was unanimous for conviction. What had changed from the first trial to the second? Nothing, except the head nod from Church Leadership. In March of 1877, Lee was pronounced guilty and sentenced to die on the spot of the crime, Mountain Meadows, where he was executed by firing squad March 23, 1877. Just before he was shot, he made this statement: "It seems I have to be made a victim—a victum must be had, and I am the victim. I am sacrificed to satisfy the feelings—the vindictive feelings, or in other words to gratify parties.... I am a true believer in the gospel of Jesus Christ. I do not believe everything that is now being taught and practiced by Brigham Young. I do not care who hears it.... I studied to make this man's will my pleasure for thirty years. See, now, what I have come to this day! I have been sacrificed in a cowardly, dastardly manner. I cannot help it. It is my last word—it is so...Sacrifice a man that has waited upon them, that has wandered and endured with them in the days of adversity, true from the beginnings of the Church! And I am now singled out and I am sacrificed in this manner! What confidence can I have in such a man! I have none, and I don't think my father in heaven has any."25 Why was John D. Lee shot by firing squad? Reading thus far, you should know the answer: Blood Atonement. Death by firing squad allowed him to "shed his own blood" to cover his sin. Utah, today, still allows capital punishment by firing squad to allow Mormons "to shed their own blood." In the 1958 edition of Mormon Doctrine, page 314, Mormon Apostle, Bruce R. McConkie, makes the following statement under the heading of Hanging: Hanging. See BLOOD ATONEMENT DOCTRINE, CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, MURDERERS. As a mode of capital punishment, hanging or execution on a gallows does not comply with the law of blood atonement, for the blood is not shed." Lee Restored to Godhood! His atonement in the eyes of the Mormon Church must have been accepted by their god, since after years of petitions by his ancestors The First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve restored his Church blessings: "Temple worker Merrit L. Norton had presented the family's request, and on April 20, 1961, The First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve authorized the restoration of Lee's Membership and Temple Blessings. Norton was baptized for his dead grandfather, and on May 9 Apostle Ezra Taft Benson officiated in the endowment and sealing ceremonies at the Salt Lake Temple."26 Reference 24 stated that Brigham Young said "that under no circumstances should he [John D. Lee] be admitted as a member again." As already shown in reference 11, Fundamental (3) The living prophet is more important to us than a dead prophet. So, David O. McKay, the living prophet in 1961, trumped Brigham Young the dead prophet, who in reference 11, Fundamental (1) ...speaks for the Lord in everything. One or the other must not have been listening to the right lord. And so goes this whole horrific tale. When this or any other part of Mormonism is put under the magnifying glass, it falls apart. 1 Forgotten Kingdom, page 146.
2 Ibid, page 162.
3 Blood of the Prophets, pp. 113-114.
4 Comprehensive History of the Church, Vol. 4,
5 Evolution of the Mormon Temple Ceremony:
1842-1990, p. 182.
6 Mormonism-Shadow or Reality? pp. 400-403
7 New York Herald, May 4, 1855, as cited in The
Lion of the Lord, pp. 158-159.
8 From the sermon by the "Prophet" Joseph
Smith, Jr., Nauvoo, April, 1844; clipped from
the Mormon Deseret News of July 15, 1857.
9 From sermon by Brigham Young, at Nauvoo,
1843, published in Millennial Star, Liverpool,
England , Vol. XXI., page 741.
10 Improvement Era, June 1945, page 354.
11 BYU Devotional Assembly, Feb. 26, 1980.
12 Journal of Discourses, Vol 6, page 32.
13 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 5:102.
14 Comprehensive History of the Church, Vol. 4,
15 Essentials in Church History, page 422.
16 Forgotten Kingdom, page 178.
17 Mountain Meadows Massacre, Special Report,
57th Congress 1st Session, House of
Representatives, Document No. 605
18 Doctrine and Covenants, 132:26
19 Mormon Doctrine, page 381
20 Ibid, page 853
21 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 5:102.
22 Blood of the Prophets, pp. 186-187.
23 Journal of Discourses, Vol 10, pp. 109-110.
24 Essentials in Church History, page 422.
25 The Mountain Meadows Massacre, p. 152; pp.
208-209 of the 1962 edition.
26 Blood of the Prophets, page 361.
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